College-Prep Physics: After Wednesday’s lab to introduce acceleration, I was ready to launch into the unit on constant acceleration. But then I read this modeling listserv email this morning before school:
Teach momentum early. It allows you to leverage students’ naive conception of “impetus” – the notion that an object carries a force with it as it moves. In many cases, they have conflated the concepts of force and momentum.
In our progression, we attempt to spiral key concepts in repeatedly. We begin with constant velocity motion. In addition to the typical tumble buggy, there’s the motion of a hover puck and a glider on an air track to model. It’s fairly natural to then look for the conditions when we find constant velocity – balanced forces.
In the free particle / balanced force unit, we look at forces as balanced /not balanced, and motion as CV / not CV. We introduce system schemas, which depict the two-way nature of interactions, and introduce our students to the process of defining a system. Hover puck and glider come out again as systems for analysis.
Next, we collide gliders on the air track to push the story line forward. We guide their focus to the change in velocity of each glider, and develop the model looking at the pattern of velocity changes observed in different collisions. Following momentum, it’s CA, and then unbalanced forces (CF) to develop N2 and get beyond “CV / not CV”. Next quarter, we’ll look at forces in collisions, and develop N3 and the impulsive force model.
I like this approach not only because it leverages the student’s naive conceptions, but also because it spirals through core content repeatedly, pulling all of our mechanics work together in the end.
I tried teaching “momentum first” once before, but it was right after constant velocity, not after balanced forces like in the email above. That limited the amount of situations we could analyze, and there was some hand-waving about forces. But right now we are wrapping up balanced forces, so I think moving into momentum now will be more effective than it was previously. So my intended sequence for this year (slightly different than the email above) will now be:
- Constant Velocity
- Empirical Force Laws and Balanced Forces
- Momentum Transfer (Conservation and Impulse)
- Constant Acceleration
- Unbalanced Forces
- Energy Transfer (Conservation and Work)
So after we discussed the results from Wednesday’s speeding up lab, we looked at the forces during collisions. We used Plickers and a modified voting sequence from Preconceptions in Mechanics. Here are my slides:
Then we ended with the colliding carts demo to verify our predictions and models:
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices:
2. Developing and using models
7. Engaging in argument from evidence